Soal Bahasa Ingris No 3

3).MATERNITY

Mrs Ernie is a 28 year-old woman,gravida 3 ,para 2 .who presents to the clinic today for her initial prenatal examination. she state that her last menstrual period (LMP) is 9/15/98 .she has not received prenatal care before today because lack of transportation. however,she does verbalize the importance of early prenatal care to ensure the well-being of her new born she states that things have gone well so far.she eats fast food and drink soda frequently. she lives with husband and two son in -law, who are very supportive .her husband works full time at a fast food chain store. he is is looking for another job that pay more money. she states that it hard to make financial ends meet at time. she stay at home with children.

The past medical history is unremarkable exept for two pregnancies ,which were both term gestation,delivered vaginally. during the last pregnancy, she was diagnosed pregnancy induced hypertension and gestational diabetes and was induced at 38 weeks gestation. she states that she gained 60 pound and that her son weighed 9 pound 2 ounces

KEY WORD

  • Mrs .Ernie is a 28 year-old

  • Last Menstrual 9/15/98

  • Eats Fast Food and Drink Soda Frequently

  • hypertension and gestational diabetes and was induced at 38 weeks gestation

  • on weighed 9 pound 2 ounces

ANSWER

  • Hypertension (HTN)

Chronic hypertension is defined as blood pressure exceeding 140/90 mm Hg before pregnancy or before 20 weeks’ gestation. When hypertension is first identified during a woman’s pregnancy and she is at less than 20 weeks’ gestation, blood pressure elevations usually represent chronic hypertension.

In contrast, new onset of elevated blood pressure readings after 20 weeks’ gestation mandates the consideration and exclusion of preeclampsia. Preeclampsia occurs in up to 5% of all pregnancies, in 10% of first pregnancies, and in 20-25% of women with a history of chronic hypertension. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy may cause maternal and fetal morbidity, and they remain a leading source of maternal mortality.

  • Hypertension in Pregnancy

During pregnancy, hypertension can affect blood flow to the kidneys, liver, brain, placenta, and other organs. Possible types of hypertension include preeclampsia, eclampsia, and gestational pregnancy. Treatment options involve bed rest, more frequent prenatal visits, and early delivery (after 36 weeks). Even though high blood pressure and related disorders can be serious, most women with high blood pressure during pregnancy (and those who develop preeclampsia) have successful pregnancies.

  • Types of Pregnancy-Related Hypertension

Types of hypertension in pregnancy include:

Preeclampsia, a condition that can occur during pregnancy, results from a narrowing of the blood vessels. Because of this narrowing, women with this condition can have decreased blood flow to the kidneys, brain, liver, retina, and placenta. Symptoms include high blood pressure, swelling of the hands and face, and protein in the urine. The only definite cure is delivering the fetus. However, if the condition occurs early in a pregnancy, treatment will involve careful monitoring of the mother and the fetus until the fetus can be delivered.

  • Gestational Hypertension

Gestational hypertension is high blood pressure that develops after the twentieth week of pregnancy. The causes of this condition are unknown, but it is clear that the condition affects blood flow to organs such as the kidneys, placenta, brain, and liver. There is no way of preventing this type of hypertension, but regular prenatal care will usually catch it early, reducing the chances of complications.

  • What Causes It?

High blood pressure research scientists do not yet know the cause or causes of hypertension in pregnancy; however, they do know that it can affect blood flow to organs such as the:

  • Kidneys

  • Placenta

  • Liver

  • Retina

  • Brain.

  • Prevent Pregnancy Hypertension

  1. Know your blood pressure level before getting pregnant. Make an appointment for a checkup with your primary care doctor or ob-gyn and make a note of your blood pressure. You can also stop by a health fair for a free evaluation, or check you blood pressure at a pharmacy that has a self-service machine.

  2. Kick the salt habit. High salt, or sodium, intake can raise blood pressure. If you typically sprinkle salt on every dish, now is the time to break the habit. Most adults should keep salt intake to 1 teaspoon per day that includes what comes out of the shaker as well as the hidden sodium in processed foods.

  3. Get off the couch. Get up and get moving before you conceive. If youre already pregnant, ask your doctor about starting a regular exercise program. Sedentary women are likely to gain weight, which can increase the risk of hypertension during pregnancy, as well as before and after. Try to start your pregnancy at a healthy body weight.

  4. Pay attention to medication. Make sure you aren’t taking medication that can raise blood pressure levels check with your doctor to see what’s safe. You may not realize that popping a decongestant, such as pseudoephedrine (Sudafed and others), for something minor like a stuffy nose can cause an increase in blood pressure. Think twice about using any medication unless your doctor approves. If you already have high blood pressure, talk to your doctor about medication use before and during pregnancy. It is very important to have your blood pressure under control and stable before becoming pregnant, as those nine months are not the best time to try new or additional medication. Work with your doctor to make sure that you are taking a medication that will be safe to continue during pregnancy.

  5. Get regular prenatal checkups. If your blood pressure starts to rise during pregnancy, you want to catch it early. Make sure to keep all appointments and consider buying a home blood pressure monitor to check your blood pressure more frequently.

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