Everyone likes to group thimngs. Language students group word as verbs, nouns and so on; collections of words are classified as phrases, or clauses, or sentences, and these again are reclassified according to their function. In the same way, botanistsw classify plants as algae, or fungi, or gymnosperms, etc. Zoologysts classify animals as vertrebrates and investibrates. The vetrebrates can be further classified as mammals, reptiler, birds, fish, etc. Classification enables us to keep hold of more information and, if it is based on the right data, enables us to understand better the ideas we are studying.
Chemists are no exception. The chemical classification of materials, if it is based on a good system, should enable us to understand better the many substances which exist in our word. What is to be the basis of our classification? Perhaps the most obvious one is appearance. Materials could be classified as solid, liquid or gas with some mixed types as, for example, mud being solid/liquid material and steam a liquid/gas material. Appearance could enable us to subdivide our main classification groups a little further; the solid may be green, or black, powdery or crystalline; the liquid may be colored, oily, thick, or free flowing; the gas may be colored. However, we soon realize that many probably quite different materials have the same appearance. Both air and the deadly carbon-monoxide gas, are colorless, odorless gases, but we would not like to group them as the same thing. Many different liquids are colorless, water-like materials.
1. The examples provided in paragraph 2 clarify that … .
A. many kinds of liquid should be grouped as one
B. different kinds of gas can be colorless and odorless.
C. Materials in chemistry should be classified differently
D. Chemistry materials have more complicated classification.
E. Taxonomy can be made and applied further to other areas.
2. Paragraph 2 exemplifies the idea about classification that … .
A. chemicals may be solid, liquid, and gaseous.
B. Appearance is not a useful basis in chemistry.
C. The use of colors is better than that of appearance.
D. Both colors and appearance should be considered
E. Colors should be included for identifying appearance.
3. The sentences Chemist are no exception (paragraph 2 line 1) colud possibly be restated as … .
A. chemical materials can also be put into classification.
B. Classification of chemical materials is without exception.
C. Chemists may also classify materials using certain criteria.
D. When appearance is the basis, chemist are not involved.
E. In material classification, chemicals should not be included.
4. The paragraph following the passage most likely deals with the classification of … .
A. flora and fauna
B. human sounds
C. liquids and gases
D. human behaviors
E. words and phrases.
5. How does the author organize the ideas ?
A. Putting the main idea with examples.
B. Presenting causes followed by effects
C. Interpreting different ways of classifying
D. Presenting the strengths ways of classifying
E. Exposing supporting details chronologically
What causes bulimia nervosa is not clear, but it may be due to a combination of family history, certain personality traits (such as perfectionism) and social values (such as admiring thinness). The risk for developing bulimia intensifies if your parent or sibling has the condition. Stressful events such as divorce or the death of a loved one can trigger bulimia in some people, mostly teenagers and young women. Also, many young women have unhealthy attitudes toward eating and toward their bodies so they may socially allow and promote destructive behaviors like extreme dieting or binging and purging.
If not properly treated, bulimia can lead to long-term health problems. Health problems caused by bulimia include electrolyte imbalances and heart problem, tooth decay, osteoporosis, dehydration and kidney problem, inflammation, swollen saliva glands, fainting, abnormal heartbeat, low body temperature, suicide risk, etc. There are also other mental health problems, such as depression, anxiety, borderline personality disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic attacks and phobias.
Like all eating disorders, bulimia is a complex physical and psychological condition that requires appropriate treatment. The treatment focuses on the change of behavior and deals with the deeper attitudes and feeling in order to avoid the binge-purge cycles. The treatment may be in form of psychological counseling (such as cognitive-behavioral therapy CBT, or iterpersonal therapy) or antidepressant medicine. Both are long-term treatments that may need weeks or months to work.
There are also other treatments which may be helpful. Nutritional counceling may help avoid unhealthy diets. Group counceling may enhance individual therapy. Family therapy may also help family member as it teaches about the disorder and the way to help. Stress management techniques (such as exercising, writing, relaxation) may also create better self respect.
1. Which of the following best states the topic of this text?
A.The combination of causes of bulimia
B.The cause and treatment of bulimia
C.Bulimia among young women
D.Series of long-term eating disorder
E.Physical and mental health problem
2. The main idea of this text is that …
A.Bulimia is a complex condition
B.Bulimia has no clear cause
C.Bulimia needs proper and long-term treatment
D.The condition can create physical and mental health problem.
E.Physical counseling and antidepressant medicine can cure bulimia.
3. Implied in the text is that the bulimia may cause …
A.Type 1 diabetes
4. Which of the following treatment is not related to bulimia?
C.Sport and exercise
5. The following information is true about bulimia mentioned in the text, EXCEPT that bulimia…
A.Mostly affects young women and teenagers.
B.Can create other health problems.
C.Cannot be treated at home.
D.Is related to socially acceptable destructive behavior.
E.Has binge-purge cycles.
1. B.The cause and treatment of bulimia
2. C.Bulimia needs proper and long-term treatment
5. C.Cannot be treated at home.
On the other hand, stereotyping can create problem because it, researchers suggest, may result in racial discrimination. In its most overt form, racial discrimination occurs as we attribute the same negative characteristics to all members of a group, regardless of individual differences. It is usually based on misconceptions, incomplete information and/or false generalizations.
Researchers have found that stereotypes exist of different races, cultures, or ethnic groups and racial stereotypes always seem to favor the race of the holder, and belittle the others. In 1933, for example, Katz and Braly gave a list of 84 personality traits and asked American university students to pick out five or six traits which they thought were typical of each nationalities/ ethnic group. The result shows that there was considerable agreement in the traits selected. White americans, for example, were seen as industrious, progressive, and ambitious, while African Americans were seen lazy, ignorant, and musical.
In other research, Lowery examined just how readily people associate particular social groups with certain kinds of feelings. In a subliminal word-association exercise, black peoples faces were more quickly associated with negative words, while white faces were linked with postitive words.
Another research proves that even people who disavow prejudice can fall into racist traps. Since negative stereotypes about various racial groups bombard us everyday in the mass media , they deposit their residue deep into our minds. Even among the most well-intentioned and consciously egalitarian people, nonconscious association about ethnic groups still have an effect on behavior and attitudes.
1. The part proceeding the text above most likely discusses …
A.The definition of race and racial discrimination.
B.The definition of stereotyping .
C.Previous research conducted on stereotyping.
D.The advantage of stereotyping .
E.The first hand.
2. Paragraph 1 of the text mainly discusses about …
A.The problem caused by stereotyping
C.The definition of racial discrimination.
D.The overt form of discrimination
3. It can be inferred from the text that what we should do is …
A.To avoid the use of stereotype.
B.To be aware of the disadvantage of stereotyping.
C.Not to practice prejudice and racial discrimination.
D.To fall into racist trap.
E.To have further research on stereotyping.
4. How is the information in the text organized?
A.Stereotype and racial discrimination are defined.
B.Problems of stereotyping are categorized.
C.Research findings about racial discrimination through stereotypes are described
D.Advantages and disadvantages of stereotyping are discussed.
E.The danger of negative stereotyping is elaborated.
5. The word it in …,It is usually based on misconceptions… (line 4) refers to …
1. D. The advantage of stereotyping
2. D. The advantage of stereotyping
3. B. To be aware of the disadvantage of stereotyping.
4. C. Research findings about racial discrimination through stereotypes are described
5. B. Racial discrimination.
More than one-third of foreign students graduating from Australian universities, mainly Asians, have such poor English skills they should never have been admitted, research showed. A study by demographer Bob Birrell found that more than 50 percent of South Korean and Thai students did not have sufficient English to work professionally in Australia, along with more than 43 percent of Chinese graduates. Some 17 percent of students from Singapore and India, where English is more widely spoken also failed to reach the required level. Overall, 34 percent of the graduating foreign students offered permanent residence visas in 2006 did not have competent English.
Birrell of Melbourne’s Monash University, said almost all the 12,000 graduates tested for the survey were from Asia because these students are the most likely to apply for permanent residency on completing their studies.
However, he said that he believed the study to be representative of all foreign students, partly because Asia was a major source of fee-paying overseas students for Australian universities. It does raise questions about university standards, Birrell told AFP. Tertiary institutions are reliant on international students because they provide 15 percent of funding, leading to suggestions that academic standards are sacrificed in favor of financial rewards.
Education Minister Julie Bishop described the survey as "an extraordinary attack by Professor Birrell on our universities." International students must meet international benchmarks in language in order to get a place in a university in Australia, she said. The study found all graduates tested had enough command of the language to cope in most situations. But people who have reached this standard are still not capable of conducting a sophisticated discourse at the professional level, it said.
In his report, Birrell said there was a "mountain of anecdotal material" that many overseas students struggle to meet their course requirements and that universities cope by lowering the English demands of the courses. There is widening recognition of the English problem, he said. But universities were hesitant to make students take extra language courses because this would make them more expensive and therefore less attractive than rival institutions, he said. However, Professor Gerard Sutton, the president of the Australian Vice-Chancellors Committee, said most foreign students would be proficient in reading, writing and listening to English. What I think has been highlighted is a deficiency in spoken language, he told AFP, adding that a deficiency in this area would not prevent them from completing a university course.
(Taken From : SOAL SPMB 2007 Regional I Kode Naskah 541)
1. The respondents of the survey were _______________
A. students entering Australian universities from Asia
B. all foreign students graduating from Australian universities
C. mostly Asian students who graduated from Australian universities
D. foreign students at graduate programs in a Australian universities
E. Australian and foreign graduates of all Australian universities
2. This passage is probably taken from ___________________
A. a demographic report for the Australian Ministry of Education
B. a handbook for foreign university students in Australia
C. an article in the education column of a newspaper
D. a brochure about tertiary education in Australia
E. a popular lifestyle magazine for young people
3.Which of the following statements is FALSE about Asian students studying in Australian universities?
A. Most of these students do not meet the requirements for Australian universities.
B. Students from Singapore and India are better in their English than those from China.
C. They pay the highest fees for their education compared to other foreign students.
D. There is no problem for graduating foreign students to get permanent resident visas.
E. Australian universities consider Asian students as the major source of their income.
4. From the text we can infer that Australian universities ____________________
A. are lowering their standards to get more foreign students
B. are making it easier for Asian students to learn English
C. are willing to provide English language courses for students
D. are hesitant to admit students with insufficient English skills
E. don’t require foreign students to take courses in English
5. The minister of Education thinks that the report is an attack on Australian Universities because it ____________________
A. was made to undermine the position of the Australian Minister of Education
B. could damage the good reputation of Australian universities
C. aims at destroying the image of the universities accepting foreign students
D. has been published without getting the approval of the Ministry of Education
E. shows that Australian universities are not successful in teaching English
1. B. all foreign students graduating from Australian universities
2. C. an article in the education column of a newspaper
3. B. Students from Singapore and India are better in their English than those from China.
4. A. are lowering their standards to get more foreign students
5. B. could damage the good reputation of Australian universities
Education is often viewed as school in a traditional, formal sense. Many people believe that true learning can only take place in a formal classroom setting. Others feel education occurs in many different forms and environments. There may not be a definitive answer to the question of, ‘What is education?’ However, we can start thinking about the purpose of education. Is it to educate youth to be responsible citizens? Is it to develop individuals, as well as society, in order to ensure a society’s economic success? Or is it to simply focus on developing individual talents and intelligence? Perhaps it is the balance of all three that defines education? While our answers may differ, we can perhaps agree that education is a basic human right. When that right is granted growth and development, the society as a whole is more likely to improve in areas such as health, nutrition, general income and living standards and population fertility rates.
As global citizens it is our responsibility to critically think about the issues and attempt to come up with solutions to the problems plaguing education. In 1990 UNESCO launched EFA, the movement to provide quality education for all children, youth, and adults by the year 2015. The unfortunate reality is that for many countries, larger issues some before improving the quality of education. How can we achieve the goals of EFA when numerous countries around the world are faced with challenges that seem far too impossible to overcome? The answer lies in attempting to bridge some of the gaps that prevent developing nations to compete with developed nations. One example is that of providing greater access to technology and narrowing the ever widening digital divide. In many ways the most basic access to technology can serve as a valuable educational tool. Individuals who are not afforded this access are at a disadvantage when trying to grasp opportunities to make life better for themselves, their families, and their community.
1. The author’s main concern in the first paragraph of the passage is that………
A. there is no exact definition about education.
B. education is a fundamental individual’s right.
C. everyone has the right to get quality education.
D. education occurs in any place not just schools.
E. development can be gained through education.
2. If the author is right concerning the role of education, the following might be predicted to take place, EXCEPT………
A. longer life expectation
B. lesser birth rates
C. improved welfare
D. better quality living
E. more job opportunities
3. The following sentences reflect the author’s opinions in the passage, EXCEPT …….
A. everyone has the right to get education.
B. education cannot be easily defined.
C. EFA provides quality education by 2015.
D. education is basic to human development.
E. The EFA goals are faced with serious challenges.
4. The situation the author shows in the passage is best described as a follows ……..
A. quality education fundamentally ensures quality living in all sectors.
B. education is essentially everyone’s right yet it still has its challenges.
C. there are problems in education in spite of its significant role.
D. as long as nations compete, education cannot progress.
E. absence of an exact definition causes problems in education.
5. The part following the passage above would likely discuss ………
A. lack of access to technology in developing countries to support educational practices.
B. needs of modem digital technology to back up the implementation of EFA in education.
C. roles of technology in providing individuals with cheap and accessible quality education.
D. inability of developing nations to compete with developed countries in technology.
E. government’s roles and responsibilities in managing education for their citizens.
1. B. education is a fundamental individual’s right.
2. B. lesser birth rates
3. C. EFA provides quality education by 2015.
4. B. education is essentially everyone’s right yet it still has its challenges.
5. B. needs of modem digital technology to back up the implementation of EFA in education.
Measles, a childhood disease, has caused sufferings to mankind for thousands of years. However, the search for an effective measles vaccine, lasted two hundred years and has finally ended in success. Now, for the first time, easels is a preventable disease. You may ask, ‘How is this important to children? Every year measles kills twice as many Americans as polio now does. More children die from measles than from any other common childhood disease. Also complications of some degree occur in about one child out of six. Most complications include pneumonia and ear disorders. Another after effect of measles – brain damage is less common, but it can have such serious consequences that it deserves special attention.
Brain damage due to easels sounds like something far away from our experience. In reality, it is no. Like any other injury, damage to the brain can be very slight or very severe. It is quite possible that we have never seen or heard a child who has severe brain damage – the child would either have died or would be in an institution. However, in medical research a relation has been found between measles and such things as behavior problems, personality changes and dulling of mental ability. For example, a child may be bad-tempered or a little slow to learn after he has recovered from measles.
1. The main information of the text is that….
A. measles has been a disease for thousands of years
B. after 200 years of research an effective measles vaccine was found
C. measles is a serious disease greatly neglected in the past
D. a lot of research was done on the complications of measles
E. measles may have bad effects on children who get the disease
2. Which of the following statements is TRUE about measles?
A. The number of children in the USA killed by measles is smaller than that killed by polio
B. Medical research revealed that measles may cause brain damage
C. In the USA children with brain damage have all been measles patients,
D. Research findings show that pneumonia and ear disorders may cause measles
E. Children who get measles will have pneumonia and ear disorders at the sometime
3. One of the important findings of the research on measles is that….
A. children who have got measles may become difficult to handle because of their behaviour
B. in reality, there are no measles patients who get brain damage
C. personality changes already occur at the time a child has measles
D. measles can cause children to become physically handicapped
E. measles is the first killer of childhood diseases in the world
4. "Which of the following in NOT an after-effect of measles?
B. Ear disorders
C. Personality changes
D. Slow learning
5. ‘or would be in an institution’ (paragraph 3).
The underlined word means
A. an orphanage
B. a rehabilitation centre
C. a hospital
D. a company
E. a public school